Questions about KANDISIN

Do you have further questions regarding KANDISIN or generally sweeteners? Here you can find a list of frequently asked questions. Or you can also send an e-mail to:
office@kandisin.at

 Questions about KANDISIN

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The most important things about sweeteners

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Sweetening substances are classified as “additives“, which serve to sweeten; have no, respectively a very low energy value ( nutrient value, calorific or Joule value) and have been produced artificially.

Overview sweeteners

As you can see in the figure below sweetening substances are divided into those which provide energy and therefore contain carbohydrates and those which provide no energy. In the case of sweetening substances with no energy value there are natural and artificial sweeteners which have no energy value and are therefore without any (respectively almost without any: example Aspartam) calories.

Übersicht Süßstoffe

What types of sweeteners are available?

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Saccharin

It was discovered in 1879 so that makes it the oldest sweetener. Pure Saccharin is about 550 times sweeter than sugar. Pure Saccharin doesn’t dissolve well though, that is why it is mainly used as a water-soluble sodium salt – Sodium Saccharin. Sodium Saccharin is 450 times sweeter than sugar. The main advantage of Saccharin is its heat resistance (up to 100°C) and resistance to frost, as well as its life in water-based solutions (e.g. soft drinks). One disadvantage of Saccharin in the beginning was its originally slightly bitter aftertaste. With time though, improved methods of production have been able to remove the typical taste almost completely. Saccharin in combination with Cyclamate multiplies the sweetening power and rounds out the taste.

Cyclamates

They were discovered in 1935 and have only 35 times the sweetening power of sugar. Even taken individually they taste quite good, can be made even better in combination with Saccharin. Cyclamat es, as is the case with Saccharin, remain stable when cooked or baked. In addition they are taken into the human organism without being changed and are excreted again unchanged by way of the kidneys.

In the USA at the beginning of the 70s Cyclamates came under critical fire because of only one test study and were finally taken off the market. In 1989 the authorities (FDA – American health authority, well known as the strictest authority of its kind in the world) admitted their mistake:

It was found that the results were based on repeated mistakes in the testing method and on fully exaggerated dosages of Cyclamate in the tests on animals. In this test the animals were fed with amounts of sweetener which, when applied to human beings, would amount to 4,000 to 5,000 sweetener tablets or the equivalent of 20 kilograms of sugar daily. This fantastic dosage led to such a burden on the animals’ organisms that the result was a higher risk of cancer of the bladder. The reason for this was the irritation caused by the excessive amount of crystals remaining in the bladder of the animals. Nowadays we know that there is no risk of cancer through Cyclamate as a food additive.

Aspartam

It was first discovered in 1965. While the other sweeteners are excreted from the human organism unchanged, Aspartam – which is a sweetener based on nature identical protein building blocks – is metabolized. It consists of two biologically active amino acids which are present in almost half of all foods : Phenylalanine and Aspartic acid. That is why Aspartam with a value of 4 kcal/g is not completely without calorific value. Due to the relatively high sweetening power of Aspartam – 200 times sweeter than sugar – these calories do not, in the true meaning of the phrase, carry any weight.

Aspartam is registered under the trade name NutraSweet in the USA. One great advantage of Aspartam in comparison to other sweeteners is its pleasant, pure sweet and sugar-like taste. Aspartam can therefore be used well solo. On the other hand Aspartam is rather unsuitable for long storage and for heat resistance in comparison to other sweeteners. Therefore Aspartam is not to be recommended when cooking, baking or for products which are conserved using a heat treatment method.

In combination with acids Aspartam is unstable and can therefore not be combined with tartaric acid as for example a Saccharin/Cyclamate mixture can. That is why the so-called fizz effect cannot be produced in products based on Aspartam.

Acesulfame

It is the youngest sweetener (discovered in 1967), it was launched in 1983. It is not metabolized by the body , is completely free of calories and is around 200 times sweeter than sugar.

Its sweetness can be perceived rapidly and is pleasant. Acesulfame has a long shelf life, is very stable and heat resistant. Therefore it can be used in all common methods of food preparation.

In summary:

SACCHARIN CYCLAMATE ASPARTAM ACESULFAME
since 1879 since 1935 since 1965 since 1967
450 times sweetening power 35 times sweetening power 200 times sweetening power 200 times sweetening power
0 kcal 0 kcal 4 kcal / g 0 kcal
Stable, heat and frost resistant Stable, heat and frost resistant Restricted heat resistance, restricted storage Stable, heat and frost resistant
Slightly bitter and metallic in aftertaste Good, balanced taste Extremely good and sugar-like taste Good, balanced taste

Sweeteners have synergetic characteristics, i.e. the sweetness of combinations of sweeteners is greater than the sum of the individual sweeteners. To put it simply one can say that for the sweetening power of combinations of sweeteners the following equation holds true : “1+1=3”.

What are sweeteners good for?

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Sweeteners whether they are fluids, powders or tablets allow people who want to stay slim and also diabetics to enjoy sweet things without all that time-consuming counting of calories and bread/carb units.

Sweeteners also help the worlds’ population of around 100 million diabetics to win back a certain quality of life and , in addition, aid overweight people and health conscious people in better controlling their weight.

Sweeteners provide a sweet, calorie free respectively low calorie substitute for sugar. They aid weight control: A long term test study by the Harvard Medical School which was completed in 1993 showed that sweeteners not only help people to lose weight but that people who stick to sweeteners can retain their personal ideal weight for a longer time.

Sweeteners do not cause – in opposition to suga r – caries. Because sweeteners do not contain any carbohydrates, bacteria in the mouth cannot produce any harmful acids which cause caries and normally damage teeth.

Apart from that, sweeteners are generally as good value for money as sugar is, when you tak e the multiplied sweetening power, in comparison to sugar, into consideration.

"Chemical Sugar"?

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Sweeteners are produced synthetically. That is why many people feel negative towards them and presume that they are not as good as sugar ("artificial", "chemical"), which is fully unfounded.

Medical studies have shown that many more people suffer allergic reaction to substances that appear naturally in fruit and vegetables, than to additives in industrially produced foods.

Two characteristics are of special i mportance when categorizing sweetening substances:
1. The sweetness as measurement for t he sweetening power (e.g. 1 piece of KANDISIN equals 6 g sugar)
2. The quality of the taste to describe the sweetness (test in water solutions).

Sweeteners are among the additives which have been tested most often and can therefore be used without any harm to health when used properly.

What are sweeteners good for?

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Sweeteners whether they are fluids, powders or tablets allow people who want to stay slim and also diabetics to enjoy sweet things without all that time-consuming counting of calories and bread/carb units.

Sweeteners also help the worlds’ population of around 100 million diabetics to win back a certain quality of life and , in addition, aid overweight people and health conscious people in better controlling their weight.

Sweeteners provide a sweet, calorie free respectively low calorie substitute for sugar. They aid weight control: A long term test study by the Harvard Medical School which was completed in 1993 showed that sweeteners not only help people to lose weight but that people who stick to sweeteners can retain their personal ideal weight for a longer time.

Sweeteners do not cause – in opposition to suga r – caries. Because sweeteners do not contain any carbohydrates, bacteria in the mouth cannot produce any harmful acids which cause caries and normally damage teeth.

Apart from that, sweeteners are generally as good value for money as sugar is, when you tak e the multiplied sweetening power, in comparison to sugar, into consideration.

Important facts about sweeteners

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Sweeteners are food additives and are therefore strictly controlled through a variety of regulations. The WHO recommendations (ADI values) for t he consumption of artificial sweeteners are listed in the following table.

ADI values per kilogram of body weight*
Acesulfame: 15 mg
Aspartam: 40 mg
Cyclamate: 11 mg
Saccharin: 5 mg
* Source : Deutscher Süßstoffverband (German Sweeteners Association) January 1999

"Chemical Sugar"?

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Sweeteners are produced synthetically. That is why many people feel negative towards them and presume that they are not as good as sugar ("artificial", "chemical"), which is fully unfounded.

Medical studies have shown that many more people suffer allergic reaction to substances that appear naturally in fruit and vegetables, than to additives in industrially produced foods.

Two characteristics are of special i mportance when categorizing sweetening substances:
1. The sweetness as measurement for t he sweetening power (e.g. 1 piece of KANDISIN equals 6 g sugar)
2. The quality of the taste to describe the sweetness (test in water solutions).

Sweeteners are among the additives which have been tested most often and can therefore be used without any harm to health when used properly.

What types of sweeteners are available?

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Saccharin

It was discovered in 1879 so that makes it the oldest sweetener. Pure Saccharin is about 550 times sweeter than sugar. Pure Saccharin doesn’t dissolve well though, that is why it is mainly used as a water-soluble sodium salt – Sodium Saccharin. Sodium Saccharin is 450 times sweeter than sugar. The main advantage of Saccharin is its heat resistance (up to 100°C) and resistance to frost, as well as its life in water-based solutions (e.g. soft drinks). One disadvantage of Saccharin in the beginning was its originally slightly bitter aftertaste. With time though, improved methods of production have been able to remove the typical taste almost completely. Saccharin in combination with Cyclamate multiplies the sweetening power and rounds out the taste.

Cyclamates

They were discovered in 1935 and have only 35 times the sweetening power of sugar. Even taken individually they taste quite good, can be made even better in combination with Saccharin. Cyclamat es, as is the case with Saccharin, remain stable when cooked or baked. In addition they are taken into the human organism without being changed and are excreted again unchanged by way of the kidneys.

In the USA at the beginning of the 70s Cyclamates came under critical fire because of only one test study and were finally taken off the market. In 1989 the authorities (FDA – American health authority, well known as the strictest authority of its kind in the world) admitted their mistake:

It was found that the results were based on repeated mistakes in the testing method and on fully exaggerated dosages of Cyclamate in the tests on animals. In this test the animals were fed with amounts of sweetener which, when applied to human beings, would amount to 4,000 to 5,000 sweetener tablets or the equivalent of 20 kilograms of sugar daily. This fantastic dosage led to such a burden on the animals’ organisms that the result was a higher risk of cancer of the bladder. The reason for this was the irritation caused by the excessive amount of crystals remaining in the bladder of the animals. Nowadays we know that there is no risk of cancer through Cyclamate as a food additive.

Aspartam

It was first discovered in 1965. While the other sweeteners are excreted from the human organism unchanged, Aspartam – which is a sweetener based on nature identical protein building blocks – is metabolized. It consists of two biologically active amino acids which are present in almost half of all foods : Phenylalanine and Aspartic acid. That is why Aspartam with a value of 4 kcal/g is not completely without calorific value. Due to the relatively high sweetening power of Aspartam – 200 times sweeter than sugar – these calories do not, in the true meaning of the phrase, carry any weight.

Aspartam is registered under the trade name NutraSweet in the USA. One great advantage of Aspartam in comparison to other sweeteners is its pleasant, pure sweet and sugar-like taste. Aspartam can therefore be used well solo. On the other hand Aspartam is rather unsuitable for long storage and for heat resistance in comparison to other sweeteners. Therefore Aspartam is not to be recommended when cooking, baking or for products which are conserved using a heat treatment method.

In combination with acids Aspa rtam is unstable and can therefore not be combined with tartaric acid as for example a Saccharin/Cyclamate mixture can. That is why the so-called fizz effect cannot be produced in products based on Aspartam.

Acesulfame

It is the youngest sweetener (discovered in 1967), it was launched in 1983. It is not metabolized by the body , is completely free of calories and is around 200 times sweeter than sugar.

Its sweetness can be perceived rapidly and is pleasant. Acesulfame has a long shelf life, is very stable and heat resistant. Therefore it can be used in all common methods of food preparation.

In summary:

SACCHARIN CYCLAMATE ASPARTAM ACESULFAME
since 1879 since 1935 since 1965 since 1967
450 times sweetening power 35 times sweetening power 200 times sweetening power 200 times sweetening power
0 kcal 0 kcal 4 kcal / g 0 kcal
Stable, heat and frost resistant Stable, heat and frost resistant Restricted heat resistance, restricted storage Stable, heat and frost resistant
Slightly bitter and metallic in aftertaste Good, balanced taste Extremely good and sugar-like taste Good, balanced taste

Sweeteners have synergetic characteristics, i.e. the sweetness of combinations of sweeteners is greater than the sum of the individual sweeteners. To put it simply one can say that for the sweetening power of combinations of sweeteners the following equation holds true : “1+1=3”.

Sweeteners and Sugar Substitutes

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What is the difference between sweeteners and sugar substitutes?

In general language usage sweeteners are often mistaken for sugar substitutes (e.g. Xyli t, Isomalt, Mannit, Sorbit, Fructose, etc.) but there are serious differences.

  • Sweeteners do not contain calories or bulk. They are considerably sweeter, have no effect on blood sugar levels and do not work as a laxative.
  • Sugar substitutes contain calories, bulk and mass like sugar, sweeten similar to sugar and have a laxative and flatulent effect when taken in large amounts.

In short, sugar substitutes (e.g. fructose, Sorbit …) don’t have any significant advantage in comparison to using any other type of sweet substan ces (sweeteners) and can therefore be disregarded.

Are sweeteners carcinogen?

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The suspicion that Saccharin and Cyclamate cause cancer is unfounded and has been scientifically proven to be false.

Nonetheless reservations about sweeteners arise again and again. These prejudices which have long since been proven unfounded date back to a widely-publicised scientific test at the beginning of the 70s, which came to the conclusion that the sweetener Cyclamate was responsible for causing cancer of the bladder in animals during the testing.

In this test, laboratory animals were fed with extraordinary amounts of Cyclamates which, when calculated for the human body would be the equivalent of approx. 4.000 to 5.000 tablets of sweetener per day, or the equivalent of approx. 20 kilograms of sugar per day.

Now it is known, that not only the high dosage had a negative influence on the testing, but also that the test itself had grave scientific shortcomings. The results of this test have never been able to be corroborated by other scientists.

In fact, further research has shown that , suspicions that sweeteners could cause cancer cannot be substantiated.

Are sweeteners harmless for your health?

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Sweeteners are harmless.

Before a sweetener receives accreditation for use in foods and foodstuffs, it is scientifically tested for many years. In these practical tests it has to prove itself safe for human consumption. During these tests all aspects of possible effects on the human organism are examined. Only after it is certain that a sweetener is harmless, does it receive certification to be used in foods.

Even the World Health Organisation (WHO) has – along with other international groups of scientific experts – confirmed the harmlessness of sweeteners to your health. In addition, strict regulations govern the amount that is permitted to be added to products.
Sweeten ers are among the most widely tested additives and can therefore be used without harm to your health when used properly.

What is the ADI value?

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ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) denotes the acceptable daily intake of an additive in milligrams per kilogram of body weight, that a human being can consume for the period of his/her life without having any detrimental effect on his/her health.

Usually these ADI values are based on long term feeding experiments with animals . In these experiments the highest dosage where there is no effect on health whatsoever is ascertained. This No Effect Level (NEL), divided by the safety factor of 100, equals the ADI value.

For example: If the amount guaranteed to be harmless in tests, NEL, is 100 mg per kg body weight, then the ADI value is determined to be 1 mg per kg body weight. Due to the combination of various sweeteners which are used in food products , the amount of intake of an individual sweetener is reduced again, because combinations of sweeteners have a synergetic effect on sweetening power and can therefore be used in considerably smaller dosages.

The ADI value is a type of security guarantee and is not to be confused with a maximum tolerance value , or maximum value of intake of a sweetener before detrimental effect upon health occurs. This value is oriented on lifelong consumption and is not to be considere d in the light of the amount consumed in one single day: The ADI is valid for a lifetime and not for one day or one meal.

ADI values per kilogram of body weight*
Acesulfame: 15 mg
Aspartam: 40 mg
Cyclamate: 11 mg
Saccharin: 5 mg

* Source : Deutscher Süßstoffverband (German Sweeteners Association) January 1999

Energy requirement

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The amount of energy taken in should, on an average, equal the amount of energy burnt. If this is the case, weight stays the same. If there is a change in this balance of energy e.g. if you eat more than can be burnt for days on end, then you gain weight and of course the opposite is also true. It is just as important for diabetics and non-diabetics to maintain normal body weight, respectively to achieve it if they are overweight because incorrect nutriti on can easily lead to metabolic illnesses, high blood pressure and to a deterioration of the diabetes status.

1. Ways of calculating energy requirement:

The measure for energy is recorded in kilocalories or kilo joules: 1 kcal = 4,186 kJ
The term comes from the Latin word "calor" and means "warmth": "A kilocalorie is the amount of energy needed to heat one litre of water by one degree" – that is the physical definition.
The unit "kilocalorie" (1 kilocalorie = 1.000 c alories) was joined by the unit “kilo joule” due to international agreements: 1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4,186 kilo joule (kJ) Energy requirement is generally dependent on type and amount of physical activity.

1.1 Basal metabolic rate + performance rate

Basal metabolic rate is the min imum calorific requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual.

Calculation: 1 kcal per kg body weight (normal weight) and hour Example: A person who is 170 cm tall has a normal weight of 70 kg
1 kcal x 70 kg x 24 hours = 1680 kcal

Performance rate is the amount of energy required for physical activity and depending on the degree of physical work is equal to 1/3 (light work), 2/3 (middle to heavy work) respectively 3/3 (heavy work) of the basal metabolic rate.

Example:
Body weight 70 kg, height 1. 70 metres
Occupation: Clerk
Basal requirement 1680 kcal + performance requirement (1/3 BMR) 560 kcal = 2240 kcal

1.2 Energy quotient

With the energy quotient you can calculate the amount of energy required per kilogram of body weight (BW) per day based on normal weight

Energy quotient:

Bed rest 24 kcal per kg BW
Light work 32 kcal per kg BW
Middle work 37 kcal per kg BW
Heavy work 40 kcal per kg BW

Example:
Body weight 70 kg, Height 1.70 Meter,
Occupation: Clerk
70 x 32 = 2240 kcal

Calorific value of nutrients

Water or tea provide 0 kcal
1 g protein4 kcal or 17 kJ
1 g carbohydrates4 kcal or 17 kJ
1 g fat 9 kcal or 37 kJ
1 g alcohol7 kcal or 29 kJ

What are bread units?

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Our main nutrients are carbohydrates, protein and fats. The greatest amount of our food (45 – 60 % of total energy intake) should be consumed in the form of carbohydrates. When carbohydrates are consumed they directly influence the blood sugar level . Fats and protein hardly affect the blood sugar level.

In a word:

A bread unit is the amount of a foodstuff containing carbohydrates, in which there are 10 g – 12 g of available carbohydrates
1 Bread Unit (BU) = 12 g carbohydrates

An exact calculation of carbohydrates (B U calculation) is only necessary for people undergoing insulin therapy.

The amount of carbohydrates the body needs depends on the weight and the personal eating habits of each individual. Diabetics must balance the effect of the insulin and the intake of carbs very carefully. That is why the amount of insulin and the dividing up of the carbohydrate intake is to be discussed with your doctor and a diabetes consultant.

BU calculation in practice:

Use of the BU calculation table (Novo nordisk, Aventis)
The following carbohydrate foodstuffs are listed in the BU table:

  • Grain products
  • Fluid dairy products (yoghurt, sour milk products, skimmed and full fat milk, whey, kefir)
  • Nuts (cashew nuts, chestnuts)
  • Potatoes, corn
  • Fruit, fruit products
  • Beer
  • Sugar
  • Sugar substitutes (fruit sugar, Sorbit...)

Foods and foodstuffs with a negligible amount of available carbohydrates are not included (almost no effect on blood sugar levels - “negligible“) respectively foodstuffs containing no carbohydrates at all:

  • Most vegetables (except those mentioned above)
  • Pulses
  • Meat and meat products
  • Poultry, fish
  • Egg
  • Oil, butter, margarine, mayonnaise
  • Cheese, quark

Diabetics should definitely mind their intake of fats. In most cases of undesired weight gain an excessive intake of fat Diabetics should definitely mind their intake of fats. In most cases of undesired weight gain an excessive intake of fat i s the cause. “Fat makes you fat“. It is largely the Type 2 diabetic who is affected. In addition the quality of the fats used also plays a role in general well-being and in care of blood vessels and organs of the body.

Are sweeteners the same as sugar substitutes?

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What is the difference between sweeteners and sugar substitutes?

In general language usage sweeteners are often mistaken for sugar substitutes (e.g. Xylit, Isomalt, Mannit, Sorbit, Fructose, etc.) but there are serious differences.

  • Sweeteners do not contain calories or bulk. They are considerably sweeter, have no effect on blood sugar levels and do not work as a laxative.
  • Sugar substitutes contain calories, bulk and mass like sugar, sweeten similar to sugar and have a laxative and flatulent effect when taken in large amounts.

In short, sugar substitutes (e.g. fructose, Sorbit … ) don’t have any significant advantage in comparison to using any other type of sweet substances (sweeteners) and can therefore be disregarded.

Are sweeteners carcinogen?

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The suspicion that Saccharin and Cyclamate cause cancer is unfounded and has been scientifically proven to be false.

Nonetheless reservations about sweeteners arise again and again. These prejudices which have long since been proven unfounded date back to a widely-publicised scientific test at the beginning of the 70s, which came to the conclusion that the sweetener Cyclamate was responsible for causing cancer of the bladder in animals during the testing.

In this test, laboratory animals were fed with extraordinary amounts of Cyclamates which, when calculated for the human body would be the equivalent of approx. 4.000 to 5.000 tablets of sweetener per day, or the equivalent of approx. 20 kilograms of sugar per day.

Now it is known, that not only the high dosage had a negative influence on the testing, but also that the test itself had grave scientific shortcomings. The results of this test have never been able to be corroborated by other scientists.

In fact, further research has shown that , suspicions that sweeteners could cause cancer cannot be substantiated.

Are sweeteners harmless for your health?

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Sweeteners are harmless.

Before a sweetener receives accreditation for use in foods and foodstuffs, it is scientifically tested for many years. In these practical tests it has to prove itself safe for human consumption. During these tests all aspects of possible effects on the human organism are examined. Only after it is certain that a sweetener is harmless, does it receive certification to be used in foods.

Even the World Health Organisation (WHO) has – along with other international groups of scientific experts – confirmed the harmlessness of sweeteners to your health. In addition, strict regulations govern the amount that is permitted to be added to products.
Sweeten ers are among the most widely tested additives and can therefore be used without harm to your health when used properly.

Baking with sweeteners?

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The three sweeteners Saccharin, Cyclamate and Acesulfame are suitable for baking – whether in liquid or powder form – and especially for yeast dough , short pastry and kneaded pastry.

For the success of other types of mixture e.g. sponge cake mixture, powdered sweetener is suitable but one has to keep exactly to the dosage recommended on the bottle. Sponge cake mixture which is sweetened with sweetener has hardly any volume therefore it makes sense here to add one tablespoon of warm water per egg yolk to the mixture. Another alternative is to substitute the amount of sugar in the recipe with one third refined sugar and to make up the remainder using a sweetener.

Example of a calculation for sponge roll

Ingredients:

  • 3 eggs
  • 180 g sugar
  • 180 g wholemeal flour
  • Salt

180g sugar =
1/3 normal refined sugar = 60 g +
amount of sweetener that equals 120 g of sugar (see enclosed measuring cup)

Can one lose weight using sweeteners?

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When clothes are too tight, when skirt or pants no longer fit, then it’s time again for “Fat Attack! ” Losing weight and then keeping it off is a great burden for many of the people affected, especially if their weight goes up and down like a yo-yo which is often the case.

A reduction in calories should, above all, be achieved through consistent reduction in fat and a corresponding exercise program .

Sweeteners are an excellent alternative, so that one doesn’t have to completely go without sweet things. Additionally they aid weight loss and help keep it off and/or keep weight under control. Sweete ners do not have any effect on the feelings of hunger or satiation, do not contain any calories and have no side effects on health. The use of sweeteners has the great advantage that the daily calorie intake can be selectively reduced. The person involved appreciates the flexibility of being able to create a more varied diet plan without having a bad conscience.

Claims that sweeteners stimulate the appetite, because they reputedly cause an increase in insulin production, have been scientifically refuted: None of the sweeteners has a stimulating effect on either insulin or blood sugar levels.

Do sweeteners make you hungry?

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Leading medical doctors and nutritionists are now sure that sweeteners neither make you hungry nor do they encourage weight gain.

Because sweeteners, with the exception of Aspartam und Thaumatin, do not contain any calories they cannot make you fat. Sweeteners that do contain calories are so sweet that they are only used in extremely small amounts. Therefore the amount of energy resulting from them can be disregarded. If the average daily intake of sugar, which amounts to 100 grams per person in Germany, is substituted with sweetener , between 200 and 400 calories per day can be saved.

The supporting role that sweeteners play in weight control was first questioned in a study by the psychologist BLUNDELL. In this experiment the test persons who were given a watery Aspartam solution and yoghurt sweetened with Saccharin as a preload before their actual meal, declared that they felt hungrier in comparison t o the control group with sugar.

An explanation for the increase in appetite was coined by the scientists under the term “ cephalic phase insulin response” (CPIR). It is said that after an intake of a sweet substance whether it is a sweetener or sugar, the organism automatically secretes insulin. Due to this the blood glucose level sinks and this triggers a feeling of hunger. Because the triggered insulin secretion was only presumed and not scientifically proven, the teams of HÄRTEL and STEINIGER did so by repeating similar experiments. The results of the experiments showed that sweeteners neither lead to an insulin secretion nor do they have an effect on the levels of glucose in the blood. Consequently sweeteners do not increase hunger or appetite. FÖRSTER achieved the same results in his experiment regarding the influence of Aspartam on appetite.

Of course sweeteners have to be included in the menu plan sensibly. One has to avoid compensating for the calories saved by eating more of other foods with high calorie content. Whoever wants to lose weight should not abuse sweeteners as an excuse to eat double or three times the amount that he/she usually eats.

Further reading:

  • ROLLS B.J.; 1991: Effect of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake and body weight: a review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, S. 872 - 878
  • RENWICK A.G.; 1994: Intense sweeteners, food intake, and the weight of a body of evidence. Physiology & Behaviour 55, S. 139 - 143
  • DREWNOWSKI A.; 1995: Intense sweeteners and the control of appetite. Nutrional Reviews 53, S. 1 - 7
  • ROGERS P.J., BLUNDELL J.E., HILL A.J.; 1988: Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: comparison of the effect of glucose and three sweeteners on hunger and food intake. Appetite 11, S. 54 - 61
  • HÄRTEL B., GRAUBAUM H.-J., SCHNEIDER B.; 1993: Einfluß von Süßstoff-Lösungen auf die Insulinsekretion und den Blutglucosespiegel. Ernährungs-Umschau 40, S. 152 - 156
  • STEINIGER J., GRAUBAUM H.J., STEGLICH H.D., SCHNEIDER A., METZNER C.; 1995: Gewichtsreduktion mit saccharose- oder süßstoffhaltiger Reduktionskost? Ernährungs-Umschau 42, S. 430 - 437
  • FÖRSTER H.; 1993: Einfluß des Süßstoffs Aspartam auf den Appetit. Aktuelle Ernährungs-Medizin 18, S. 331 - 337

Sweeteners for children?

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Sweeteners in the nutrition of children

Children are born with a preference for sweet things. That is why they love sweets more than anything else. It would definitely be wrong though to forbid everything sweet. Parents however should teach their children not to sweeten food and drinks too much. Children should learn as soon as possible to find the naturally sweet taste of fruit and juice sweet enough, and moderation with regard to sweeties.

Where sweetness is necessary, for example in soft drinks or chewing gum, children can also profit from alternative products with sweeteners. In comparison to sweets containing sugar, these alternative products have the advantage that they do not harm teeth and do not result in more “baby fat”.

Sweeteners are beneficial for children too, if one doesn’t go overboard with their use. How much sweetener a child can consume without exceeding the ADI value (ADI = Acceptable Daily Intake), can be seen in the examples from the following table. ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) denotes the acceptable daily intake of an additive in milligrams per kilogram of body weight, that a human being can consume for the period of his/her life without having any detrimental effect on his/her health. It is not a maximum value which defines the tolerance limit or toxicity limit. It is more a type of security guarantee, based on lifelong consumption. Because the ADI value is calculated according to body weight, the amount of consumption which is suitable for children is necessarily less than that for adults. When the ADI value was set, a safety factor of 100 was calculated into the equation, which takes those people into account who need special protection such as children, ill people or aged people.

In the following table you can see the amount of the individual sweeteners which a person of the body weight entered may consume without hesitation per day for their whole life . Apart from that you can see in the table the amount of sugar which is substituted by the amount of sweetener mentioned.

Achievable sugar equivalents* within the ADI value

Daily ADI value per body weight Acesulfame
(15 mg)
Aspartam
(40 mg)
Cyclamate
(7 mg)
Saccharin
(5 mg)
Neohesperidin
DC (5 mg)
Thaumatin
(unbegrenzt)
Infant (15 kg) = sugar equivalent 225 mg 45 g 600 mg 120 g 105 mg 4 g 75 mg 41 g 75 mg 45 g -- --
Child (30 kg) = sugar equivalent 450 mg 90 g 1200 mg 240 g 210 mg 8 g 150 mg 82 g 150 mg 90 g -- --
Child (45 kg) = sugar equivalent 675 mg 135 g 1800 mg 360 g 315 mg 12 g 225 mg 123 g 225 mg 135 g -- --
Adult (70 kg) = sugar equivalent 1050 mg 210 g 2800 mg 560 g 485 mg 17 g 350 mg 193 g 350 mg 210 g -- --

*The term “sugar equivalent” denotes the amount of sugar which has to be used to reach the same sweetening power which the amount of sweetener mentioned does.

Parents should always keep an eye on the nutrition of their children to guard against overeating or false eating. These days children often eat too much and too fat. They also quite often choose foods which do not contain enough vitamins and minerals. In addition they often don’t get enough exercise. These are the reasons why children often suffer from being overweight, despite the fact that they need a relatively high amount of calories for growth and development. For children who tend to be overweight, a balanced diet and occasional consumption of products sweetened with sweeteners, plus lots of exercise are the basis for a healthy life.

Further reading:

  • Alexy U., Kersting M., Schöch G.; 1996: Süßstoffe in der Ernährung von Säuglingen und Kindern. Ernährungs-Umschau 43, 358 - 360
  • Alexy U., Kersting M., Schöch G.; 1996: Süßstoffe in der Ernährung von Kindern. Diät + Information 6, 208 - 209
  • Ditscherlein E., Lentze M.J.; 1996: Geschmacksempfindung und -entwicklung im Kindesalter. Monatsschrift der Kinderheilkunde 144, S177 - S183

Sweeteners during pregnancy and when breast feeding?

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Consumption of sweeteners during pregnancy and when breast feeding

During pregnancy the daily energy requirement of a woman increases by about 300 kilo calories in the 3rd trimester. At the same time though the requirement of certain nutrients such as folic acid and iron increases by up to 100%, which causes a problem for the mother to be in finding and selecting foods with a low energy count but at the same time of high nutritive value. Foods containing sweeteners can help solve this problem, as they contain the same amount of vitamins and minerals as foods sweetened with sugar, but have noticeably less calories. This makes it easier to provide the body with all the necessary nutrients without feeding it unnecessary calories.

Women read a lot about nutrition especially during a pregnancy so that they can provide the unborn child with all the things it needs for healthy development. Now and then the question about the safety of sweeteners comes up. Doubts are unnecessary because sweeteners are harmless for the embryo. There have been a number of experiments which have shown that sweetener consumption by the expectant mother during pregnancy does not have any harmful effect on the embryo.

After the bi rth of the baby, many young mothers want to lose weight and get back to the weight they had before the pregnancy. One must take into account though that there is an additional energy requirement of 800 kilo calories per day while breast feeding. A great amount of this energy is yielded up in the milk. It is not advisable to lose weight while breast feeding because the fat reserves of the mother, which are also the depots for harmful substances, are then mobilised. These substances can be passed onto the baby by way of the breast milk.

So there are two objectives:
1. The baby has to be provided with sufficient nutrients, vitamins and minerals.
2. After finishing breast feeding the mother wants to get back to her weight before pregnancy.

To achieve both of these objectives it is very important during this time to have a balanced diet by choosing highly nutritious foods. Products sweetened with sweeteners can be a help in finding a balance between nutrient density and energy balance.

Further reading:

  • Bungard G; 1968: Die Süßstoffe – Die Cyclamate, Die physiologische Unbedenklichkeit der Cyclamate. Der deutsche Apotheker 20, S. 1 - 6
  • Klotzsche C; 1969: Zur Frage der teratogenen und embryotoxischen Wirkung von Cyclamat, Saccharin und Saccharose. Arzneimittel-Forschung 19, S. 925 - 928
  • Lorke D; 1969: Untersuchungen von Cyclamat und Saccharin auf embryotoxische und teratogene Wirkung an der Maus. Arzneimittel-Forschung 19, S. 920 - 922
  • Lorke D.; 1969: Zur Toxizität von Cyclamat für Mäuseembryonen. Arzneimittel-Forschung 19, S. 923 - 925

What does " contains Phenylalanine" mean?

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Why is the notice “contains Phenylalanine” included on some products wh ich are sweetened with Aspartam?

This information is included only for t he extremely small number of people who suffer from the congenital metabolic disorder Phenylketonuria (PKU). For all other consumers excepting pregnant women, this information is irrelevant. Phenylketonuria is a very rare congenital disorder which prevents the human organism from converting or metabolising the natural protein Phenylalanine in its usual manner.

What is the ADI value?

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ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) denotes the acceptable daily intake of an additive in milligrams per kilogram of body weight, that a human being can consume for the period of his/her life without having any detrimental effect on his/her health.

Usually these ADI values are based on long term feeding experiments with animals . In these experiments the highest dosage where there is no effect on health whatsoever is ascertained. This No Effect Level (NEL), divided by the safety factor of 100, equals the ADI value.

For example: If the amount guaranteed to be harmless in tests, NEL, is 100 mg p er kg body weight, then the ADI value is determine to be 1 mg per kg body weight. Due to the combination of various sweeteners which are used in food products , the amount of intake of an individual sweetener is reduced again, because combinations of sweeteners have a synergetic effect on sweetening power and can therefore be used in considerably smaller dosages.

The ADI value is a type of security guarantee and is not to be confused with a maximum tolerance value , or maximum value of intake of a sweetener before detrimental effect upon health occurs. This value is oriented on lifelong consumption and is not to be considere d in the light of the amount con sumed in one single day: The ADI is valid for a lifetime and not for one day or one meal.

ADI values per kilogram of body weight*
Acesulfame: 15 mg
Aspartam: 40 mg
Cyclamate: 11 mg
Saccharin: 5 mg

* Source : Deutscher Süßstoffverband (German Sweeteners Association) January 1999

What can I sweeten with Kandisin?

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Sweeteners offer a wide range of applications :

As tablets they are easier to portion for coffee, tea and cocoa, as liquid sweetener they are very useful for cold drinks , in creamy puddings and desserts, and in fruit salad and yoghurt. Liquid sweetener is also especially suitable for cooking and baking. It dissolves well and is uncomplicated and easy to use. Tip: Don’t add liquid sweetener to foods which are boiling (this c an lessen the sweetening power)!

Sweetener in powder form is also an excellent and easily portioned choice for cold and hot desserts or mueslis, for dusting or decorating cakes, waffles, fruit dumplings or crêpes, as well as for rounding off the taste of fresh fruit or drinks.

Sweeteners can also be used as the finishing touch for sour or savoury dishes: add a little to salad dressings, gravies, vegetables and mixed pickles etc.

The sweetener Aspartam is ideal for cold or slightly warm dishes. As soon as it is heated up it loses its sweetness. That is the reason why it should only be added to dishes that have to simmer for a long time at the end of the cooking process. Refer to the instructions for use.

Sweeteners cannot be caramelised, and the y don’t have the preservative effect which sugar has . For this reason jams which you have made using sweetener should be filled into small jars, kept in the fridge when opened and consumed rapidly or preserved by a different method.

How are sweeteners dosed?

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Sweeteners provide concentrated sweetness – that is why they should, as a general rule, be dosed sparingly whether in tablet, powder or liquid form.

Sweetness:
1 sweetener tablet = 1 teasp oon of refined sugar or one sugar cube
1 teaspoon sweetener = 50 g refined sugar or 4 tablespoons of refined sugar ( see measuring cup included on the bottle).
1 tablespoon KANDISIN powder = 1 tablespoon refined sugar but the weight is 10 times less!!! Please use according to the instructions for use on the label on the jar!!

Sweeteners in powdered form are a special type:
Carrier substances such as m altodextrin or fructose are combined with the sweetener. That is how these powdered sweeteners attain their fine crystals and light consistency. Sweeteners in powder form have a minimal amount of calories.

How much sweetener may be used per day?

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Is there such a thing as an upper limit for consumption of sweeteners?
Is it easy to exceed the ADI value by eating several foods sweetened with sweetener?
The tolerance included in the legislation and the high safety requirements for sweeteners make it very difficult to exceed the ADI (“Acceptable Daily Intake”) in normal cases – even if many products containing sweeteners are eaten per day.

There is no set upper limit value for t he consumption of sweeteners, which could be seen as a limit before toxicity occurs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) sets an individual ADI value (“Acceptable Daily Intake“) for all food additives – also for each single sweetener – which defines the harmless lifelong consumption per day per kilogram of body weight .

ADI values per kilogram of body weight*
Acesulfame: 15 mg
Aspartam: 40 mg
Cyclamate: 11 mg
Saccharin: 5 mg

* Source : Deutscher Süßstoffverband (German Sweeteners Association) January 1999

Which foodstuffs contain sweeteners?

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There is a large range of high quality calorie free or reduced calorie foodstuffs which are sweetened with sweeteners:

  • Light lemonades and diet fruit juice drinks
  • Cakes, desserts, and dairy products
  • Canned fruit and vegetables
  • Chewing gum
  • Sweets
  • Ice cream
  • Jam

Food legislation permits the use of sweeteners in foods and foodstuffs for general consumption. According to diet regulations , diet foodstuffs have to differ significantly from normal foodstuffs. Packaging of foodstuffs for general consumption may not include any notice about effect on health for example. T his means that the information “suitable for diabetics” or “diet foodstuff for reduced calorie nutrition and for special nutrition within the diet plan of Diabetes Mellitus“ is not allowed, even if the information is true.

"Reduced Calorie", " Low Calorie" or "Light" – what is the difference?

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Reduced calorie means that the product has at least 30% less calories than the conventional food. If it has less than 30% reduction in calories it may not be labelled as reduced calorie.

Low calorie means that the product has less than 50 kcal/100 g in solid foods and less than 20 kcal/100 ml in liquid foods, independent of whether the product has undergone calorie reduction or not.

The labels “reduced calorie” and “low calorie” can be relied upon completely. Some manufacturers even include the calories saved in comparison to normal products.

„Light“ is a term that is neither trademarked nor regulated by legislation. It does not always have to be used in regard to a reduction in calories. Therefore the word “light” should be a signal for the consumer to pay special attention to the label.

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